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Monthly Monitoring

Feed Requirements

Essential Nutrients

Additional Nutritional Factors

Feeding Regime

Water Quality Requirements

Water Quality Action and Reaction

Water Quality Management and Biofilter Maintenance

Post larval fitness parameters

Post Larva Acclimitation


Risk Management, Bio-security and HACCP Implementation


System Disinfection Procedures

Equipment Maintenance

Record Keeping and Report Templates


Black spot disease (BSD), Chitinolytic bacterial disease, Shell disease, Brown spot disease, Burned spot disease, Rust disease.

Scientific name or taxonomic affiliation

Chitinolytic bacteria (Gram negative rods) including Vibrio spp. (=Benekea spp.), Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Spirillum, spp. and Flavobacterium spp.

Geographic distribution

Ubiquitous, especially evident on shrimp held in long term captivity/culture.

Host species

Numerous species of wild and cultured marine and freshwater shrimps, also lobsters, and many species of crabs and crayfish.

Impact on the host

The exoskeleton becomes pitted, eroded, and melanized at the site of infection.

Diagnostic techniques

Gross Observations: Erosion of chitin demarked by dark brown to black pigmentation demonstrates chitinolysis.

Histology: Progressive necrosis, inflammation and subsequent melanization of the body surface and appendages.

Culture: Culture lesion on marine agar. Test isolated bacteria for chitinolytic activity in saline solution with thin chitin strips.

Methods of Control

No known treatment. Shell disease can be managed in captive and cultured populations by reducing crowding, wound avoidance, proper husbandry, and system hygiene.




Variables to be used in health evaluation

Health evaluation tests
Wet Mount Procedure . PL visual examination . Stress test for post larva . Gill examination . Mid-gut Examination . Stomach Contents Analysis

Shrimp Diseases
Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) . Reo-like virus (REO) . Lymphoid organ vacuolization virus (LOVV) . Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) . Rhabdovirus of Penaeid Shrimp (RPS) . White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) . Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic virus (IHHNV) . Baculovirus penaei (BP)
Bacterial Diseases
Vibriosis . Epicommensal fouling disease (filementous bacteria) . Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis (NHP) . You are here . Mycobacteriosis
Fungal Diseases
Larval mycosis . Fusariosis
Haplosporidia . Gregarines . Cotton Disease
Black Gill Disease (BGD) Dissolved Oxygen Crisis Nitrogen Gas Bubble Disease

Disease control
Decreasing density, partial or early harvests . Drugs, chemicals and treatments . Sanitation