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Monthly Monitoring

Feed Requirements

Essential Nutrients

Additional Nutritional Factors

Feeding Regime

Water Quality Requirements

Water Quality Action and Reaction

Water Quality Management and Biofilter Maintenance

Post larval fitness parameters

Post Larva Acclimitation


Risk Management, Bio-security and HACCP Implementation


System Disinfection Procedures

Equipment Maintenance

Record Keeping and Report Templates


Hepatopancreatic parvovirus disease, HPV.

Scientific name or taxonomic affiliation
DNA­containing parvovirus. Identification as a parvovirus was based on: 1) its replication in intranuclear inclusion bodies, 2) a DNA viral genome as indicated by intensely Feulgen positive reaction and 3) its small size (22 to 24 nm diameter).

Geographic distribution
Enzootic in captive, wild and hatchery-reared penaeids in Korea, Yellow Sea area of P.R. China, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Kenya, Israel and Kuwait. Introduced into South America with imported and cultured Asian penaeid shrimp and in now found in cultured P. vannamei in North and South America and in cultured and wild penaeid shrimp along the Pacific coast of western Mexico and coastal El Salvador and Brazil. HPV may now have a cosmopolitan distribution.

Host species
Penaeus merguiensis, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus chinensis (=orientalis), Penaeus esculentus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus penicillatus, Penaeus japonicus, Penaeus stylirostris and Penaeus vannamei. A HPV-like agent was found in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

Impact on the host
Typically affects mid-juvenile stages with signs of necrosis and atrophy of the hepatopancreas, poor growth rates, anorexia and reduced preening with a concurrent increase in surface and gill fouling by epicommensal organisms. Increased mortality, particularly under stress or crowding conditions has been noted. Although HPV has been accused of causing serious disease losses on farms, it is seldom observed alone and usually occurs in multiple agent epizootics with opportunistic pathogens like Vibrio sp. Thus, the significance of HPV in causing epizootics and economic losses is not fully understood.

Diagnostic techniques
Tissue Imprint: Hepatopancreatic cells with small eosinophilic inclusions associated with the nucleolus (developing HPV inclusion bodies) or large basophilic inclusions intimately associated with a hypertrophied nucleolus and within the hypertrophied nucleus (mature HPV inclusion bodies) from a bisected hepatopancrease that was dabbed on a clean glass slide and stained with Giemsa's stain.

Histology: Single prominent basophilic (with haematoxylin and eosin stain), Feulgen positive inclusion bodies in hypertrophied nuclei of hepatopancreatic tubule and epigastric caecal epithelial cells with lateral displacement and compression of the host cell nucleolus and chromatin margination of the nucleus. Early in their development, HPV inclusions are small eosinophilic bodies centrally located within the nucleus and closely associated with the nucleolus.

Electron Microscopy: Small diameter (22-24 nm) DNA-containing isometric parvo-like viral particles in the intranuclear inclusion bodies.

DNA Probes: DIG-labeled gene probes A-1.9 and S-2.0 provide a sensitive method for detecting HPV when used in Dot blots and in situ hybridization. These probes do not react with the HPV-like virus from M. rosenbergii from Malaysia.

Methods of control
No known treatment.



Variables to be used in health evaluation

Health evaluation tests
Wet Mount Procedure . PL visual examination . Stress test for post larva . Gill examination . Mid-gut Examination . Stomach Contents Analysis

Shrimp Diseases
You are here . Reo-like virus (REO) . Lymphoid organ vacuolization virus (LOVV) . Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) . Rhabdovirus of Penaeid Shrimp (RPS) . White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) . Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic virus (IHHNV) . Baculovirus penaei (BP)
Bacterial Diseases
Vibriosis . Epicommensal fouling disease (filementous bacteria) . Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis (NHP) . Black spot disease (BSD) . Mycobacteriosis
Fungal Diseases
Larval mycosis . Fusariosis
Haplosporidia . Gregarines . Cotton Disease
Black Gill Disease (BGD) Dissolved Oxygen Crisis Nitrogen Gas Bubble Disease

Disease control
Decreasing density, partial or early harvests . Drugs, chemicals and treatments . Sanitation