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Daily Check List

Weekly Check List

Monthly Monitoring

Feed Requirements

Essential Nutrients

Additional Nutritional Factors

Feeding Regime

Water Quality Requirements

Water Quality Action and Reaction

Water Quality Management and Biofilter Maintenance

Post larval fitness parameters

Post Larva Acclimitation


Risk Management, Bio-security and HACCP Implementation


System Disinfection Procedures

Equipment Maintenance

Record Keeping and Report Templates


Black gill disease, Burned gills, Black spot disease, Branchiostegite melanization.

Scientific name or taxonomic affiliation

Manifestation of a number of disease syndromes including ascorbic acid deficiency.

Geographic distribution


Host species

All penaeids, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Pandalus borealis and Pandalus platyceros especially under captive/culture conditions.

Impact on the host

Destruction and dysfunction of gill processes, secondary infections.

Diagnostic techniques

Gross Observations: Multifocal black or brown spots in, or general discolouration of, the gills, due to melanization at sites of tissue necrosis. Gill melanization may be visible through side of carapace.

Wet Mounts: Will identify condition as above.

Histology: Massive haemocyte accumulation (called inflammation by some authors), tissue necrosis and melanin deposition in affected areas of gills. Secondary infections of bacteria, fungi and protozoa may occur.

Methods of Control

May be due to a variety of biotic and abiotic agents; prevention or control may be feasible if cause can be identified.




Variables to be used in health evaluation

Health evaluation tests
Wet Mount Procedure . PL visual examination . Stress test for post larva . Gill examination . Mid-gut Examination . Stomach Contents Analysis

Shrimp Diseases

Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) . Reo-like virus (REO) . Lymphoid organ vacuolization virus (LOVV) . Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) . Rhabdovirus of Penaeid Shrimp (RPS) . White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) . Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic virus (IHHNV) . Baculovirus penaei (BP)
Bacterial Diseases
Vibriosis . Epicommensal fouling disease (filementous bacteria) . Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis (NHP) . Black spot disease (BSD) . Mycobacteriosis
Fungal Diseases
Larval mycosis . Fusariosis
Haplosporidia . Gregarines . Cotton Disease
You are here . Dissolved Oxygen Crisis . Nitrogen Gas Bubble Disease

Disease control
Decreasing density, partial or early harvests . Drugs, chemicals and treatments . Sanitation