Vitamins (IU / Kg min.) 0.1 -1g 1-3g >3g Vitamin A 5000 4500 4000 Vitamin D3 1600 1400 1200 Vitamins (mg / Kg min.) Vitamin E 160 140 120 Vitamin K 10 9 8 Thiamine 26 24 22 Riboflavin 26 24 22 Pyridoxine 26 24 22 Pantothenic acid 65 60 55 Nicotinic acid 130 120 110 Biotin 0.21 0.19 0.17 Folic Acid 5 4.5 4 Vitamin B12 0.034 0.031 0.028 Vitamin C 400 350 300 Choline 1400 1300 1200 Inositol 600 550 500
The above vitamin figures are required for vannamei shrimp. All except four of the vitamins are water soluble. Feed manufacturers tend to over fortify to cover storage time, and since shrimp are slow feeders and there can be vitamin loss to the water due to the effects of leaching. Therefore in the feeds one may expect to see values 2-5 times greater than the above figures.
Once the formulation is worked out and the ingredients selected then a energy value (calories) per kilo of the feed should be calculated for reference purposes. A calorific level of 3,000 to 4,000 Kcal/kilo has been to shown to be effective in shrimp. A crude protein to energy ratio of between 0.08 and 0.1 is also a useful guide.
The jury is still out on the minimum ratio of plant to marine protein required in a complete marine shrimp diet.
RAS shrimp diets need to be specifically formulated with the understanding that a zero loss system may result in accumulation of certain products.
Some additives in feed can also affect bio-filter function.
Accumulation of phosphorous (K) has been noted when using open pond feed in RAS.